DODJI PAOLO A. ARMEL LESSE, JONAS DJENONTIN, IBOURAIMA YABI, BRICE TENTE, MARCEL HOUINATO, SINSIN BRICE
University of Abomey-Calavi, Dept. of Sciences and Technics of Animal Production, Benin
University of Parakou, Animal Production, Benin
University of Abomey-Calavi, Dept. of Geography and Planning, Benin
University of Abomey-Calavi, Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Benin
Animal husbandry, second economic activity after agriculture in Sudanese Africa, contributes to food security in pastoral and agro-pastoral communities. This livestock keeping is still extensive and largely based on the use of natural resources for cattle feeding and watering. In order to increase its contribution in the countries economy, a policy has been set up in the decades 70-90 to promote agro"=pastoral systems. The aim of the various programs was to secure pastoral mobility in a dynamic planning of the territory and to guarantee the continuity of appropriate management of the structures and the pastoral areas. Despite the development of a pastoral water infrastructures programme in the north of Benin, the preoccupation of pastoralists and agro"=pastoralists still focuses today on improving watering points in existing grazing areas. For a better assessment of the available watering points, an exhaustive inventory of the area water infrastructures was done and, using ArcView software, a map with all watering points was created. The Analysis of the management of the water infrastructures was realised thanks to interviews addressed to 180 actors determined previously thanks to SWOT tool. These questionnaires were treated with Sphinx plus software. In total 152 water infrastructures comprising dams, rivers and wells have been inventoried in the study area. The results coming from the description of these infrastructures allowed to point out their functionality and the quality of their maintenance. The difficulties of accessing these infrastructures and the uses of the other water points saved for non-pastoral use have also been highlighted. It can be concluded, that the absence of access roads to the water points and settlements for vegetable cultivation around these points are the main concerns of the nomadic livestock keepers. Indeed, the settlement of the corridors is source of numerous conflicts between farmers and livestock keepers and the difficulties of accessing the water infrastructures particularly put the livestock keepers under pressure.
Keywords: Food security, natural resources, pastoralism