VEERANA SINSAWAT FORRER1, SUMANA NGAMPONGSAI1, ARADA MASARI1, CHAOWANART PHRUETTHITHEP1, JIRALUCK BHOOMTHAISONG1, SUWIMOL THANOMSUB1, UDOMWIT VAIDHAYAKARN1, DUMRONG JIRASUTAS2, SOMCHAI CHANNARONGKUL3
1Chai Nat Field Crops Research Centre, Department of Agriculture, Thailand
2Office of the Deputy Director General, Department of Agriculture, Thailand
3Office of the Director General, Department of Agriculture, Thailand
This research is part of the conservation and utilisation of field crops genetic resources research project of the Thai DOA. The prime aims of the project were 1) to make an inventory of known locations where Vigna species can be found, 2) to undertake field visits to validate the findings from previous records and make recommendations to conserve the populations found in those locations for in situ conservation of Vigna species and 3) to regenerate and make a safety duplication of those species under threats. Nine surveys were carried out and covered 12 provinces of Thailand. Found locations were recorded by a GPS. Passport data of collected accessions were recorded. Sixty-five sites from previous records were searched. It was found that 41 sites had disappeared and only 24 sites were found. Seven in situ sites were newly found. Sixty"=six samples, of plant for herbarium specimens and of seeds for ex situ regeneration were collected. Species were identified by seed characters and herbarium speciemens. The most found species were Vigna umbellata, followed by Vigna minima and Vigna trinervia. Wild Vigna in several sites had disappeared due to threats imposed to the conservation sites, both abiotic or biotic. Abiotic threats were such as slash"=and-burn, road expansion, urbanisation, or herbicide application. Biotic threats were such as disease, insect pests, nematode or alleopathy effect. Maps of wild Vigna species distribution as well as their in situ sites were also displayed. Attempt, when possible, was made to relieve threats in order to sustain these in situ conservation sites. After the surveys and collections, wild Vigna species were characterised and regenerated at Chai Nat Field Crops Research Centre for a safety duplication and sustainable use. Seeds of each species were then divided into 4 lots. The first lot is used as genetic materials in the Vigna breeding programme while the second lot is safely deposited at the national genebank in Bangkok. The third and fourth lots are for depositing in a regional genebank at AVRDC and the world newly established Svalbard genebank in Norway, respectively.
Keywords: Characterisation, conservation, genetic resources, regeneration, safety duplication, threats, Vigna