NUCHA SIMASATIKUL1, DUANGPORN PICHPOL2, PHAKTEMA BOONRUANG1, PAWIN PADUNGTOD2, KESINEE GATPHAYAK1, PRAPAWADEE PIRINTRA3, PANUWAT YAMSAKUL1, UDO TER MEULEN4
1Chiang Mai University, Department of Animal Science, Thailand
2Chiang Mai University, Department of Veterinary Public Health, Thailand
3Chiang Mai University, Department of Veterinary Preclinical Science, Thailand
4Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Institute of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Germany
Betel leaf is an important component of daily consumption in Asia and Africa. Betel leaf constituents volatile oil (cadinene, carvacrol, caryophyllene, chavitbetol, chavicol, 1,8-cineole, estragole, eugenol, terpinyl acetate, etc.), amino acids, pyridine alkaloids, sitosterols, stigmasterol, tannins, vitamin C, oxalic acid, d(+)malic acid, n-hentriacontane, n"=pentatriacontane and inorganic elements (fluoride, iron). The volatile oil from the betel leaf extract is antiseptic and antioxidant. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antibacterial activities of crude extracted betel vine leaf against Salmonella spp. A total of 300 g crude extract was extracted from 2kg fresh betel vine leaf (15% yield) by 95% ethanol. Fourty eight samples of pig feces (n=16), pen floor (n=3), sewage (n=3), water (n=2) and pork (n=24) were treated with several concentration (0.0061 to 6.25 lml-1) of the betel vine leaf extracted in Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA). The minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of the extracted was lowest in 4.2% of pork samples (0.0244 lml-1 for S. rissen) whereas highest in 18.75% of fecal samples (1.5625 lml-1 for S. krefold). At 0.3906 lml-1 showed the antibacterial activities of 2 strain Salmonella spp. (S. rissen, S. lagos) in 45.8% of pork samples and at 0.7812 lml-1 showed the broad antibacterial activities of 8 strain Salmonella spp. (S. rissen, S. lagos , S. krefold, S. weltevreden, S. Stanley, S. derdy, S. salamae, S. bovismorbifican) in all type of samples (100% of sewage, pen floor and water, 81.25% of feces, 50% of pork). We further intend to determine effective constituents in betel leaf and use the crude extracted as feed supplement in weaned pig diets for controlling diarrheal bacteria.
Keywords: Antibacterial activity, crude extracted betel vine, Salmonella spp.