Richard SovjŠk, Radka MatejíckovŠ:
Preliminary Results of the Risk Assessment in Pigs Production and Pigs Processing in Small-Scale Enterprises in Vietnam


Czech University of Agriculture Prague, Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture, Czech Republic

In Vietnam, there about 90% of animal food production originates from small-scale farms and manufactures. As especially pork is favourable subject of choice in eating habits of Vietnamese people, preferably, except of soup, in not "well done" way of cooking, hazard of food borne diseases is expected. Therefore the first study of "risk analysis" both at farms and small meat processing plants was initiated, with the aim to obtain information for "risk management". The first investigations of Critical Control Points were carried with the aim to localize the main sources of hazards in the course of breeding and finishing of pigs. The sporadic outbreaks of some epizootic diseases can cause devastating losses to smallholder pigs' farm. During rainy season antibiotics (tetracycline) as respiratory disease treatment and preventive measure are used, without following recommended withdrawal period prior to slaughter. Amongst diseases with the highest incidence, those caused by mineral and vitamin deficiency are observed. Outbreaks of swine fever by smallholder farmers are often not reported, therefore actual epizootic situation is not precisely known. It may also be the reason, why the above discus occurs despite the use of vaccination in farms.

Hygienical assessment of feed mills also was included, both from the part of raw materials and CCPs in the course of processing, possibility of recontamination included. Hazard in pigs transport to the slaughterhouses was assessed, taking into consideration procedure of veterinary health status certification of animals for slaughter at small-scale abattoirs, from the possibility of HACCP system implementation.

The ways of pigs carcasses handling, wholesale conditions and their transport by the retailers with the observance of valid Veterinary Care Act were confronted. The lack of a cold chain impedes the greater development of an efficient animal slaughtering and meat processing industry. Without a cold distribution chain, meat cannot be transported over large distances from inexpensive surplus areas to expensive deficit areas in Vietnam. In addition, the absence of an effective cold chain in storage and distribution of meat is causing rapid increase of saprophytic and even pathogenic microorganisms counts and poor hygienic conditions of pork meat.

Keywords: Pigs production, risk analysis, risk assessment, small-scale farms, small-scale processing plants, Vietnam


Contact Address: Richard SovjŠk, Czech University of Agriculture Prague, Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture, KamżckŠ 129, Czech Republic, e-mail:
Andreas Deininger, 2003