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Tropentag, September 14 - 16, 2022, Prague

"Can agroecological farming feed the world? Farmers' and academia's views."

Enhancing resilience through farm income diversification: a case of Malawi

Zex Kalipalire

Lilongwe Water Board, Lilongwe Water and Sanitation Project, Malawi


This study used cross sectional data from the Farm Income Diversification Programme (FIDP) to examine the impact of the project on household as related to food security. Total annual household income, food security, and the wealth status of households were used as measures of household resilience. Data entry was done in CSPro. Data entry forms were designed that replicate the pages in the questionnaire and validation routines were programmed to capture data collection and entry errors. Data analysis used a Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). A Difference-in-Difference and propensity score matching procedures were used to make statistically valid comparisons between households which participated and did not participate in FIDP.

To achieve a margin of error of 6% and a level of confidence of 95% it was decided to interview 270 respondents per district. The quality of data was enhanced using the following mechanisms: Incorporation of consistency checks in the design of the questionnaire, High level of supervision during training, training of supervisors focused on consistency checking, Incorporation of tests to select supervisors and enumerators, high level of supervision during enumeration, and automatic data validation during data entry.

The results were presented descriptively using change maps and tables. These maps are of three different colours – red, orange and green. Green indicates a positive change. Orange means no change whereas red means a negative change in the indicator and bears an associated negative number. The show that households which participated in FIDP had higher incomes and their food security status improved more than similar households which did not participate in the project. The results show that the project improved the wealth of participating households compared to their counterparts who did not participate.

Keywords: Diversification, farm, income, Malawi

Contact Address: Zex Kalipalire, Lilongwe Water Board, Lilongwe Water and Sanitation Project, Off likuni road, 00265 Lilongwe, Malawi, e-mail: zexkal@yahoo.com

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