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Tropentag, September 14 - 16, 2022, Prague

"Can agroecological farming feed the world? Farmers' and academia's views."


Pest control through cropping systems and biopesticides uses for sustainable farming

Assitan Daou, Issa Traoré, Karim Dagno

Institut d'Economie Rurale (IER), Programme Sorgho, Mali


Abstract


In West Africa, pest pressure is one of the causes of low cowpea productivity. Controlling these constraints by using biopesticides, can be one of the alternatives to increase cowpea productivity while preserving the environment; hence, the present theme. The aim is to determine biopesticides effects on cowpea yield and pests under different cropping systems. Trial was conducted at Sotuba research station. Three cowpea genotypes (Sangaraka, Djiguifa and Ghana shoba) and a sorghum genotype (Tiandougou coura) were put under deux cropping systems with five biopesticide treatment (No treatment, neem leaves, Carapa procera oil, Zarama plant and k_optimal). A split-split-plot design in three replications were used.The first factor was cropping system (2 levels), the second factor was cowpea genotype (3 levels) and the third factor was biopesticide treatment (5).
The plot size was 5m long of 8 lines (30 m2). The space between lines was 0.75m × 0.50 m for sorghum and 0.75 m × 1m for cowpea.
The organic manure (Profeba) was applied at the rate of 1 t ha-1 and 45 kg ha-1 of complex cereal (17–17–17) fifteen and forty-five days after sowing respectively.
Two treatments were done in each two weeks, starting after the observation of ten (10) Aphis colonies. Data were collected on the number of Aphis colonies, grain and biomass yields.
The results showed that the number of insect populations is generally higher in sole cowpea than in intercropping, this demonstrates the positive effect of intercropping for pest control. The numbers of insect decrease generally as the biopesticides treatments progresses. For average grain yield, the chemical pesticide K-optimal gave the highest yield (575 kg.ha-1) followed by two biopesticides neem (423 kg.ha-1) and Carapa procera (369 kg.ha-1) independent of cropping system. For average biomass yield, neem recorded the highest value in intercropping system and sole cropping system respectively with Sangaraka (2028 kg.ha-1) and Ghana shoba (1475 kg.ha-1).


Keywords: Biopesticides, cropping systems, pest


Contact Address: Assitan Daou, Institut d'Economie Rurale (IER), Programme Sorgho, Niamana, Bamako, Mali, e-mail: daouassi@yahoo.fr


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