Genomic copy number variations for adaptation of livestock to climate change
Ethiopian biotechnology institute, Habtamu abera goshu, Ethiopia
Domestications have shaped the genome of all living things on our globe. Changes in temperature and climate were shaped the genetic landscape of the populations. Genomic Copy number variations (CNVs) are shaped using mutation, selection, and demographic history within and between livestock species. Genomic copy number variations play significant roles in designing and implementing genetic intervention plans for climate resilience and improve livestock production in developed and developing countries. For instance, copy number variable genes are olfactory receptors (ORs) important roles for food foraging, mate recognition, and detection of volatile chemicals in the environment. Moreover, The CNV of the DNAJC18, ASI, and AFH genes play a role in the tropical adaptation and heat tolerance of zebu. Copy number variations prominent roles surveying unique adaptive, productivity, and survivability traits of African livestock populations display under challenges of environmental pressures, disease, nutritional, and water shortages. Establishing livestock with the appropriate genetics to improve heat resilience in tropical countries and maximise their productivity and subsequently reduce their overall carbon footprint. The individual coat types of domesticated bovine breeds vary widely, with yak breeds (Bos grunniens) selected for hair length and cold tolerance, and short-haired cattle of zebu (Bos indicus) selected for hot and tropical environments. The improvement of breeds through the transfer of genes into highly selected breeds for better match livestock to harsh conditions and maintain productivity. Phenotype traits to consider for a genetic basis of resilience in all biological functions of interest and the potential inclusion in selection indices for breeding schemes. Therefore, this review determines the present eminence of copy number variations associated with the adaptation of livestock to climate change.
Keywords: Climate, copy number variation, gene, livestock
Contact Address: Habtamu Goshu, Ethiopian biotechnology institute, Habtamu abera goshu, Addis ababa, 5954 Addis Abeba, Ethiopia, e-mail: habtamu2016yahoo.com