Production parameters estimates of smallholder pig production systems in Uganda
Edwin Oyieng1, Karen Marshall1, Matthias Gauly2
1International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Kenya
The smallholder production system in Uganda significantly contributes to the increase in pig production and local pork consumption. In this paper, we present the estimates of production parameters for smallholder pig farmers in Uganda. Baseline household and longitudinal surveys were conducted from 191 pig keeping households in Hoima and Kamuli districts. The households were mainly male headed with an average household size of 6.0 ± 2.6. The farmers had either primary or secondary education as the highest level of education. The household land size was on average 2.3 ± 1.7 acres. The average herd size, sows and litter size was 3.78 ± 4.06, 1.48 ± 0.95 and 7.2 ± 2.3 respectively. Piglets comprised 11%, weaners 22%, growers 43%, finishers 19% and late finishers 5% of the herd. The average age at first parity, parities per sow per year, farrowing interval and annual still birth rate was 11.3 ± 1.1 months, 1.4 ± 1.1, 261 days and 0.02 respectively. The piglets weaned per sow per year was 7.1. The annual mortality rates reduced from piglets to late finisher stage. 85% of the animals exited the farms through sales while 70% entered the farm through births. The annual overall offtake rate was 3.04 while the annual offtake rate from sale of pigs was 2.76. The overall annual intake rate was 1.34 while the annual intake rate from purchase of pigs was 1.31. 41% of the pigs sold were weaners, 24% growers, 22% late finishers and 13% finishers at an average price of USD.19.33, 38.53, 58.07 and 46.21 respectively. The annual health cost for curative treatment was higher than for preventative treatment across each animal type. Weaners had the highest cost for curative and preventative treatments. The most bought feed types were maize (70%) and rice (28%) bran which costed USD.0.10 and 0.75 per kg, respectively. Sow service was on average USD.3.09 ± 2.75. The cost of the piggery housing was on average USD.110.66 with an annual maintenance cost of USD.7.63. Other costs related to the pig farming (tethering, farm equipment, pig slaughtering) amounted to USD 3.85 per year. This information is important for evaluating the profitability and sustainability of the smallholder pig production system in Uganda.
Keywords: Pigs, production parameters, smallholder, Uganda
Contact Address: Edwin Oyieng, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Livestock Genetics, Old Naivasha Road, 254 Nairobi, Kenya, e-mail: E.OYIENGCGIAR.ORG