Potential of Essential Oils in Filling Gaps and Removing Traps for Sustainable Poultry Production
Christabel Aghorowei, Amamieghaye Edum, Ruth Tariebi S. Ofongo
Niger Delta University, Dept. of Animal Science, Nigeria
Essential oils extracted from plant materials are aromatic, volatile and oily liquids which can serve as alternatives to antibiotics. Essential oils have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and coccidiostatic properties. The essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum (lyn) a medicinal plant consumed as a spice in Nigeria was extracted to determine its in vitro antibacterial activity against Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhymurium and Clostridia perfringens isolated from poultry litter. The oil was extracted with the means of a Clevenger and placed in an amber bottle before antibacterial studies was carried out. The bacteria S. enteritidis, S. typhymurium and C. perfringens were isolated using bacteria specific agar after serial dilution of poultry litter collected from poultry pens. Clostridium perfringens was cultured on Reinforced Clostridia Agar while Salmonella were sub cultured from Salmonella shigella agar onto Mueller Hinton Agar to remove the effects of indicators and suppressive chemical agents in primary isolation media. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the zone of inhibition (ZOI – in mm) of O. gratissimum essential oil against the 3 bacteria. The oil was standardised to 80%, 40% and 20% respectively with the aid of 2% pharmaceutical grade laboratory soap.
Keywords: Antibiotics, Clostridia perfringens, essential oil, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhymurium
Contact Address: Ruth Tariebi S. Ofongo, Niger Delta University, Dept. of Animal Science, Wilberforce Island, P.M.B. 071, Yenagoa, Nigeria, e-mail: tariruthlive.de