Intra-Household Barriers in the Adoption of Alternate Technology: A Case of Biogas Technology in Pakistan
Nazia Yasmin, Philipp Grundmann
Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy (ATB), Technology Assessment and Substance Cycles, Germany
In designing agricultural policies households are considered a single decision making unit but theoretical and empirical literature on intra-household decision making has suggested that individuals can have divergent preferences, objectives and welfare implications with in a household. So, the assumption of unitary model in household decision making can be misleading particularly for those technologies which have diverse division of labour and welfare impacts on male and female in the household. In this scenario, it is necessary to understand the internal dynamics of household to understand the berries to the technology adoption. This study in rural Pakistan sets out to examine the behaviour of male and female household members towards the biogas technology adoption. To meet this objective theoretical framework was mainly adapted from the theory of planned behaviour including bargaining process and other sources of perception and socio-cultural influences as stimuli of adoption. Data were collected through focus group discussions and structured questionnaire with males and females in the households. Structural equation modelling (SEM) technique was applied to test the strength of the hypothesised relationships. Our findings highlighted the importance of gender among other barriers in slow transition towards biogas technology. It also showed that the decision to adopt biogas technology is not only effected by the physical availability and needs of the actors but is also differentiated by their power relations vested in variety of social norms, cultural settings and societal construction and have different impact upon different actors. These findings hint at the appropriate actions from policymakers and donors to develop such intervention strategies sensitive to gender specific needs.
Keywords: Adoption barriers, biogas, gender, intra-household decision
Contact Address: Nazia Yasmin, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy (ATB), Technology Assessment and Substance Cycles, Max-Eyth Allee 100, 14469 Potsdam, Germany, e-mail: nyasminatb-potsdam.de