Using Process Net-Map to Analyse Governance Challenges: A Case Study of Livestock Vaccination Campaigns in Zambia
Mary Lubungu, Regina Birner
University of Hohenheim, Inst. of Agricultural Sciences in the Tropics (Hans-Ruthenberg-Institute), Germany
One of the major issues in the implementation of agricultural development projects is how to overcome the implementation problems especially if the provision of funds or inputs such as vaccines is involved. We study a case of a vaccination programme as an example of the more general problems of governance issues that arise during the implementation of agricultural development projects. Vaccination is particularly important because it often is the only way to deal with the livestock diseases, especially in the sub-Saharan African countries. The study employed a novel qualitative research method known as Process Net-Mapping, which is a visual participatory mapping technique to identify, the governance challenges that arise in the implementation process of vaccination programs. Process Net-Mapping involves three main steps. First, the respondents describe the implementation process step by step and identify the actors involved in each step. Second, they rank the influence different actors have on the outcome, and finally, respondents identify the challenges and at what point within the implementation process they occur. The study identified delays in the procurement and disbursement of funds as the main problems encountered in the implementation of vaccinations. The complex design of the procurement procedure results in procurement delays while delays in the release of funds arise because of the diversion of funds. These challenges are not only relevant for vaccination programs, but they are general problems. Therefore, considering e-procurement could address the complexities of the procurement process whereas building a sustainable financial capacity in the overall management of public funds is key in dealing with the challenge of fund diversion. The supply side problems can also be solved through the pressure from the demand side (farmers). However, there is a lack of power from the demand side because there is no much opportunity for interaction between farmers and veterinary personnel due to some social barriers and lack of effective organisation. Lobbying and voting to induce political decision makers to take steps to improve the performance of the veterinary service delivery is one mechanism that farmers can employ to hold the service providers accountable and be able to demand better services.
Keywords: Governance challenges, livestock, process net-map, vaccination, Zambia
Contact Address: Mary Lubungu, University of Hohenheim, Institute of Agricultural Sciences in the Tropics (Hans-Ruthenberg-Institute), Wollgrasweg 43, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany, e-mail: marylubungugmail.com