Nikinake – An Agricultural Extension Campaign for Resource Management and Food Security: The Case of Bako and Yem, Southwestern Ethiopia
Gerba Leta1, Girma Kelboro1, Anna-Katharina Hornidge2, Kristof Van Assche3, Till Stellmacher1
1University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF), Germany
Participatory Extension System (PES) is one of the approaches developed and used in Ethiopia to nurture farmers' involvement in agricultural innovation dissemination and scaling-up for resource management, food security and rural development. To reinforce the scaling-up process and enhance adoption of best agricultural practices, the regional government jointly with district stimulate the implementation of agricultural extension. The approach is called “Nikinake” meaning movement. The process and effectiveness of such an agricultural extension approach has not been given sufficient attention in research. Therefore, our study aimed at filling in this gap by taking Bako and Yem woredas in Southwestern Ethiopia. We generated empirical data through participant observation, key informant interviews, expert interviews and informal group discussions in the year 2015/2016. Based on our findings, this presentation will shed light on how Nikinake is coined, organised, empowered and accelerated implementation of land management activities. The result show that Nikinake is a joint architecture of aketatay sened (a “fueling document”) by regional bureaus of agriculture in collaboration with regional administration, and the Nikinake organizing committees. Implementation of Nikinake initiated with a regional training workshop in which heads of zone and woreda sector offices participate. Following the training, each of the stages in the government administrative ladder commits to its implementation. Similarly, the woredas execute Nikinake with participation of kebele cabinets and relevant lower level development actors. In the two woredas we studied, all the farmers were brought on-board the implementation process. However, the implementation modalities of Nikinake differ between the two woredas. In general, Nikinake has an added value in improving farmers' participation and promotion of collective learning and action mainly on the dissemination of innovation and scaling-up of resource management practices. Nevertheless, the process can be improved and long-term viability of achievements of Nikinake can be realised by devising strategies to facilitate participation of farmers in the planning process to change the hitherto top-down model with an agenda coming as a surprise to the local level with a requirement for participation in implementation.
Keywords: Agricultural extension, rural development, southwest Ethiopia
Contact Address: Gerba Leta, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF), Political and Cultural Change, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 53113 Bonn Bonn, Germany, e-mail: gerbaletayahoo.com