Global Warming and the New Geography of Brazilian Coffee Production
Hilton Pinto, Jurandir Zullo Junior, Ana Maria Avila
State University of Campinas - Unicamp, Center for Research in Meteorology and Climatology Applied to Agriulture - Cepagri, Brazil
Coffee culture in Brazil is characterised by plant species Arabica (Coffea arabica L.), prevalent in areas with mean annual temperatures between 18°C and 22°C and plants species Robusta (Coffea canephora Pierre) grown in areas with annual mean temperatures between 22°C and 26°C. Temperatures outside these limits, normally caused by heat waves, cause damage to the coffee crop due to floral abortion – temperature equal or higher than 33°C - or tissue death due to frost, when leaf temperature reaches -3.5°C or 1.5°C in the meteorological shelter. The total rainfall varies from 1200 to 1400 millimeters with a dry interval in the winter, when the harvester occurs. A dry period of four or five month with water deficiency before flowering is favourably to better quality beans.
Keywords: Arabica coffee, climate and coffee, coffee, coffee and global warming, coffee in Brazil, Conilon coffee
Contact Address: Hilton Pinto, State University of Campinas - Unicamp, Center for Research in Meteorology and Climatology Applied to Agriulture - Cepagri, Rua Andre Toselli 209 - University Campus Unicamp, 13083-886 Campinas, Brazil, e-mail: hiltoncpa.unicamp.br