Combination of Soil-Applied Azadirachtin with Entomopathogens for Integrated Management of Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis
Jacinter Atieno Otieno1, Hans-Michael Poehling2
1Leibniz Universität Hannover, Inst. of Horticultural Production Systems, Dept. of Phytomedicine, Germany
Biological control has received more attention due to increasing concern about overuse of pesticides in controlling Western Flower thrips (WFT). However there is no satisfactory and reliable single biological control technique that can efficiently control WFT, particularly on high value crops because of their low damage threshold levels. Therefore including low-risk pesticides with selective application seems to offer a sustainable control strategy. This study aims to develop an integrated system for control of Western Flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis. We tested the potential of biocontrol agents such as soil applications of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae Nemastar® (E-Nema GmbH, Germany), isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (IPP 2539 & ICIPE-69) and Beauveria bassiana (Naturalis® - BioGard, Italy) and two Neem formulations, Neem Azal-T (1% Azadirachtin A) and Neem pellets (7 % Azadirachtin in inert carrier material) (Trifolio-M GmbH, Germany) alone and in combinations. All possible single and combined treatments were analysed for inducing acute mortality and we checked surviving individuals for retarded development of mycosis as possible cause of secondary mortality. In addition interactive effects amongst different combination treatments were also analysed using a general linear model (GLM).
Keywords: Azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana, combination, Metarhizium anisopliae, soil application, Steinernema carpocapsae, western Flower Thrips
Contact Address: Jacinter Atieno Otieno, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Inst. of Horticultural Production Systems, Dept. of Phytomedicine, Herrenhaeuser Str. 2, 30419 Hannover, Germany, e-mail: otienoipp.uni-hannover.de