Integrated Assessment of Human and Animal Waste
Hung Nguyen1, Phuc Pham Duc2, Le Thu2
1International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Vietnam
We developed a conceptual framework for improving health and environmental sanitation using an approach combining health, ecological, socio-economic assessments. The framework has three main components: health status, physical environment, and socio-economic environment. Information on each of these three components can be obtained using standard disciplinary methods and an innovative combination of these methods. In this way, analyses lead to extended characterisation of health, ecological and social risks while allowing the comprehensive identification of critical control points. Interventions deriving from the comprehensive analysis consider biomedical, engineering and social science perspectives or a combination of them. Moreover, interventions encompass not only technical solutions but also behavioural and social changes, which are derived from the identified resilience patterns. The framework is conceptualised and validated for the context of urban and peri-urban settings in developing countries focusing on waste, such as excreta, wastewater, and solid waste, their influence on food quality, and their related pathogens, nutrients and chemical pollutants.
Keywords: Agriculture intensification, environmental sanitation, health risk and impact, integrated approach, urban, waste management
Contact Address: Hung Nguyen, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Hanoi, Vietnam, e-mail: h.nguyencgiar.org