Uncovering Governance Challenges in the Implementation Post-Conflict Agricultural Recovery Programs: A Case of NUSAF and NAADS in Northern Uganda
Emmy Wassajja, John Ilukor
University of Hohenheim, Inst. of Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences in the Tropics and Subtropics, Germany
Programs that promote agricultural development play an important role in post-conflict areas because virtually the entire population in the affected areas depends on agriculture for their survival. Yet there are major challenges in the implementation of such programs geared at post-conflict recovery, such as mismanagement of funds, targeting problems and elite capture. The large scale programs that are being implemented in the post conflict situation of Northern Uganda such as the northern Uganda Social Action Fund (NUSAF) and the National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) programme offer an important opportunity to learn about the opportunities and challenges of different implementation and targeting mechanisms. The goal of the proposed paper is to study such programs in a comparative perspective with the objective of generating policy relevant information on promising strategies for achieving food security and agricultural development in post conflict areas. Taking the case of the two programs stated above, this paper analyses the governance challenges that occurred in the implementation of these programs and possible strategies to address these challenges. The examines „supply-side challenges” (lacking capacity and incentives of the implementing agencies) and “demand-side challenges” (i.e. lacking capacity of the beneficiaries to demand good programme implementation and to hold the agencies accountable). A “Process Net-Map” tool and qualitative research tools like in-depth interviews and focus group discussion were used to identify governance challenges in implementation process and actors involved. The influence level of each actor was determined based ranks given by respondents and problem areas in the implementation were identified. The main supply side challenges identified included lack of human resource capacity, lack of monitoring to control kick-back payments for staff and embezzlement of funds, and political interference in contracting, e.g., of agricultural inputs. The main demand side challenges arise due to low literacy rates, loss of social capital during the conflict, and political patronage. The study concludes that a combination of demand-side strategies, such as increased transparency and community monitoring as well as supply-side strategies, such as improved monitoring, are required to overcome the implementation challenges of post conflict recovery programs.
Keywords: Governance challenges, NAADS, NUSAF, process net-map
Contact Address: Emmy Wassajja, University of Hohenheim, Inst. of Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences in the Tropics and Subtropics, Wollgrasweg 43, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany, e-mail: emmyradoyahoo.com