Enhance Women Participation in Agricultural Extension Activities in India
Massoumeh Nasrollahzadeh1, Smita Sirohi2
1IFCN Dairy Network, Dairy Sector Analysis, Germany
Women represent one of the crucial development forces in the world. But extension services in the developing countries still facing difficulties in effectively make them involve and actively engage in agricultural activities. According to the World Bank nearly three-quarters of India's families depend on rural incomes. The majority of India's population (some 770 million people or about 70 percent) are found in rural areas. India's food security depends on producing cereal crops, as well as increasing its production of fruits, vegetables and milk to meet the demands of a growing population with rising incomes. Agriculture sector employs 4/5th of all economically active women; they make 1/3rd of the agriculture labour force and 48% self-employed farmers. Highly involving women in agriculture productivities but facing lack of women participating in agriculture extension programs, is one of the primary reasons distinguishing unsuccessful extension program from successful one. Agricultural extension strategies traditionally have focused on increasing production of cash crops by providing men with training, information, and access to inputs and services. This male bias is illustrated in farmer training centers, which have been established to provide residential training on technical subjects. Second, women's daily workloads do not usually allow them to be absent from home for residential training; even attending short courses may cause insuperable problems in arranging substitute care for children or the home. And third, even where attendance of women is quite high as a proportion of the total, women are given instruction mainly in home economics and craft subjects, not technical agriculture. Pluses mentioned issue lower education level or not educated compels the women marginalized from extension services. Therefore to increase the agriculture productivity needs a reformation of traditional extension services, gender issues, and mobilization of information.
Keywords: Agriculture extension, constraints, productivity, women farmer
Contact Address: Massoumeh Nasrollahzadeh, IFCN Dairy Network, Dairy Sector Analysis, schauenburger strass 16, 24118 Kiel, Germany, e-mail: massoumeh.nasrollah.zadehifcndairy.org