Status of Aflatoxin Contamination in Marketed and Farm Gate Milk in Nairobi County of Kenya
Irene Kagera1, Florence Mutua2, Delia Grace3, Johanna Lindahl3, Peter Kahenya1
1Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Food Science and Technology, Kenya
In Kenya where milk consumption is higher than in other countries in the region, a major concern is the risk of chemical hazards in milk; particularly aflatoxins whose high levels have been reported. Milk contamination with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) has been causing public health concerns. Thus the aim of this study was to give baseline data on aflatoxin contamination in marketed and on-farm consumed milk in Nairobi County. To quantify the levels of aflatoxin in milk and milk products consumed in middle/high and low income areas of Nairobi, 291 samples were collected mainly from retail shops and selected supermarket. For the farm gate milk, 84 milk samples were collected from small holder dairy farms in urban and peri-urban areas. All samples were analysed for AFM1 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The levels of AFM1 in the milk and milk products ranged from 0.30-1069.45 ppt in low income area with over 66% of samples exceeding the EU legal limit of 50 ng kg-1, whereas contamination levels ranged from 0.94-1078.49 ppt in samples from higher income area wherein 40% exceeded the EU legal limit. Although farm gate milk samples had lower AFM1 levels (range: 1.73-255.96 ppt) when compared to market milk samples, over 64% had levels that exceeded the EU legal limit. The population in these regions is at high risk to AFM1 exposure, thus necessitating the need to explore different mitigation strategies to control AFM1 contamination in milk and milk products in Nairobi county of Kenya.
Keywords: Aflatoxin M1, dairy farms, ELISA, exposure, milk, Kenya
Contact Address: Irene Kagera, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Food Science and Technology, 62000, 00200 Nairobi, Kenya, e-mail: njokimuthoni07gmail.com