THI THU TRA VU, HONG NGAN PHAM, VAN NHIEM DUONG, MINH HA NGO , FRED UNGER
Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Vietnam
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Vietnam
With pork representing more than 70% of meat consumption in Vietnam pig production is growing fast and plays an important role in the livestock production. Especially smallholder farms contribute substantial to the pork supply (approximately 80%) because of consumer preferences, subsistence and commercial purposes. Despite of this considerable market share the overwhelming majority of smallholder pig farms lack of technologies, biosecurity and control measures in terms of diseases, hygiene and environment conditions. As being part of a wider research on improving smallholder pig value chains in Vietnam a longitudinal survey was conducted with the objectives to assess biosecurity practices and related farm management which will be used to identify suitable options for improved disease control. The survey was carried between March and December 2014 in the Hung Yen and Nghe An provinces of Vietnam. Thirty farms were selected randomly in each provinces as a sub-sample from a larger sampling frame (N=416) and visited in fortnightly intervals. On farm data by using a checklist and observations included information on farm management, biosecurity measures, working and feed storage conditions as well as diseases events. In general diseases control measures were found insufficient. The majority of farmers allowed visitors to access the farm without any restrictions (69.7%) throughout the entire observation period. Disinfection mattresses were installed only in 42.7% of visits, and even applied, often not maintained. The use of protective clothes and boots by workers was the exception (81.2%). Pre"=weaning piglets were usually not provided with litter (88.9%) and/or heat sources (74.1%), the latter being a particular constraint during the cold season. From an animal welfare perspective it was notable that only approximately half of farms provided permanent water access to their pigs (48%). Poor management was also reported for feed handling and storage with clear signs of rodents or pests in feed (47.9%) and visible signs of moisture (49.4%). Observed gaps in farm management will be addressed in the upcoming intervention phase by developing and testing of packages guided by feasibility, cost benefit and farmers compliance.
Keywords: Biosecurity, farm management, pig, smallholder, Vietnam