Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences, Germany
This article examines the value of trophy hunting as special form of wildlife tourism, its role and importance as a source of economic growth and rural development, and how its potential could be further developed. The geographical focus lies on Tanzania where wildlife tourism is already well organised and seen as potential contribution to growth. Also, the management approach of `Community-Based Conservation' (CBC) in surrounding areas of reserves and parks stresses the need to incorporate rural communities. Aim is to provide benefits to communities to strength conservation, rural development and poverty alleviation under economic use of wildlife. As reference point, mainly data and findings from the Conservation Program of the Selous Game Reserve (SGR) but also from other countries' national parks are reverting. The analysis is embedded within the concept of `Total Economic Value' and methods of descriptive statistics, literature review and discussions are applied.
It will be shown that trophy hunting as a direct use value is high-valued through demand and preferences of tourists. In 2003, trophy hunting value of the SGR was approximately US$ 3.6 million and the single hunters' willingness"=to-pay for a trip was US$ 6,700. A decomposition analysis reveals the importance of buffalos as high"=valued species and tourist fees' contribution to the entire value.
Under special condition of CBC, the effects for rural development as indirect use value reveal a diametric picture of positive, negative and missing results. Whereas direct benefits like household incomes and job creation are low, managed harvests as `by-product' and indirect benefits like channeling of revenues into projects are more successful.
However, for future incentives, it will be discussed that possibilities and impulses for rural development starting from trophy hunting are caught in a dilemma. Trade-offs between development and conservation as well as other difficulties exist. Exemplarily, trophy hunting creates limited working opportunities while job creation can act against poaching. Contrary, support of agricultural and infrastructural improvements through channeled revenues can work against conservation goals and threat the resource wildlife as basis of trophy hunting. Finally, some recommendations are derived.
Keywords: Rural development, Tanzania, valuation, wildlife, willingness-to-pay