Nucha Simasatikul, Phimpatra Boonruangphisan, Duangporn Pichpol, Kesinee Gatphayak, Pawin Padungtod, Prapawadee Pirintra, Panuwat Yamsakul, Therdchai Vearasilp, Udo ter Meulen:
Antibacterial Activity of Standard Eugenol against Salmonella spp.

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NUCHA SIMASATIKUL1, PHIMPATRA BOONRUANGPHISAN1, DUANGPORN PICHPOL2, KESINEE GATPHAYAK1, PAWIN PADUNGTOD2, PRAPAWADEE PIRINTRA3, PANUWAT YAMSAKUL1, THERDCHAI VEARASILP1, UDO TER MEULEN4
1Chiang Mai University, Department of Animal Science, Thailand
2Chiang Mai University, Department of Veterinary Public Health, Thailand
3Chiang Mai University, Department of Veterinary Preclinical Science, Thailand
4Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Institute of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Germany

Eugenol (C10H12O2), is an allyl chain-substituted guaiacol, i.e. 2-methoxy"=4"=(2"=propenyl) phenol. Eugenol is a member of the allylbenzene class of chemical compounds. It is a clear to pale yellow oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils especially from clove oil, nutmeg and cinnamon and bay leaf. It is slightly soluble in water and soluble in organic solvents. It has a pleasant, spicy, clove"=like odor. Eugenol has been used at least since the nineteenth century and is still used in perfumeries, as flavourings, in analgesics, biocides, antiseptics, and in local anaesthetic due to its anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antibacterial activities of standard eugenol against Salmonella spp. Forty eight samples of pig feces (n=16), sewage (n=3), pen floor (n=3), water (n=2) and pork (n=24) were treated with several concentration levels (0.0061 to 6.25 $\mu$l ml-1) of standard eugenol in Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA). The minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of the standard eugenol was lowest (0.0976 $\mu$lml-1) in 70.8 % of pork samples for S. risen and in 12.5 % of pork samples for S. lagos and S. krefeld. At 0.1953 $\mu$lml-1 eugenol showed antibacterial activities of S. rissen in 4.2 % of pork samples and at 0.3906 $\mu$lml-1 eugenol showed broad antibacterial activities of 7 strain of Salmonella spp. (S. rissen, S. krefeld, S. weltevreden, S. stanley, S. derdy, S. salamae, S. bovismorbifican) in all types of samples (100% of feces, sewage, pen floor and water). We further intend to determine effectiveness of standard eugenol as feed supplement in weaned pig diets for controlling diarrhoeal bacteria.



Keywords: Salmonella spp, standard eugenol, antibacterial activity


Footnotes

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Contact Address: Nucha Simasatikul, Chiang Mai University, Department of Animal ScienceHaui-Keaw Road, 50200 Chiang Mai, Thailand, e-mail: agahi001@chiangmai.ac.th
Andreas Deininger, November 2008