MUHAMMAD GHIASUDDIN SHAH1, ANAS SARWAR QURESHI2, MONIKA REISSMANN3, HORST JÜRGEN SCHWARTZ4
1Sindh Agriculture University TandoJam, Department of Anatomy and Histology, Pakistan
2University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Pakistan
3Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institute of Animal Sciences, Germany
4Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Department of Livestock Ecology, Germany
Pakistan possesses about 1.2 million camels in more than 20 breeds representing approximately 23% of the whole camel population of Asian countries. Recently annual population growth rates of 1.62% were observed. In this investigation performance traits of six camel breeds (Marecha, Dhatti, Larri, Kohi, Campbelpuri and Sakrai) from different zones of the country were studied. These traits included some of the morphological characteristics, somatometric measurements as well as features for growth, production, reproduction and draught power. Significant differences could be calculated in the performance of various camel breeds. Results show a shorter neck, girth, height and length (p < 0.001) of the Kohi camels than that of the others; where-as the size of hump was smaller (p < 0.001) in Campbelpuri breed. Male calves of Campbelpuri breed were heavier (p < 0.001) at birth. Marecha breed shows a higher (p < 0.001) lactation yield and longer (p < 0.001) lactation length. However, the age at puberty in the Kohi females was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in Dhatti and Larri breeds, (p < 0.01), Marecha and Campbelpuri and (p < 0.04) Sakrai camels. Marecha females showed a longer gestation period (p < 0.001) than Larri, Kohi, Campbelpuri and Sakrai, and also (p < 0.02) Dhatti. Kohi females produce more calves during their life span (p < 0.001) than Marecha, Dhatti, Larri, Sakrai, and (p < 0.03) Campbelpuri female. A longer dry period (p < 0.001) occurs in Kohi females. Dhatti females show longer calving interval (p < 0.02). Number of mountings per day was calculated for each male from all six breeds. It is higher in Kohi males (p < 0.001) than that of the Marecha, Dhatti, and (p < 0.02) Sakrai. Kohi breed produces relatively more hair (p < 0.001) than all other breeds included in this task. Riding speed of various camels was calculated and Kohi camels were found to be slower (p < 0.001) than Dhatti, (p < 0.01) Marecha and (p < 0.02) Campbelpuri camels.
Keywords: Breed differences, camels, performance traits, Pakistan