K. SHALVA, HENNING WILLEKE, RALF SCHLAUDERER
University of Applied Sciences Weihenstephan, Department of Agriculture, Germany
Pig production was an important and flourishing sector of the Georgian economy up to 1990. With the break down of the plan economy the production of pigs became unprofitable. State breeding stations are no longer working. Price increase of means of production was much higher than meat price increase. Additionally missing management know-how and modern improved production procedures led to non-profitability. The annual consumption of pig meat declined from 1989 from about 15-20kg per head to 9kg per head in 2003.
This paper examines possibilities to improve the profitability of pig meat production in Georgian Republic.
Data were collected in September to October 2004 in 47 pig production farms by using standardised questionnaires. Most of the farms were identified by random sampling. The questionnaires dealt with farm size, number of animals per farm, feeding system, animal husbandry forms and losses, production procedures, labour demand, labour capacity and variable machine costs. For the calculations the prices of the year 2004 were used. Additionally pig feed was analysed.
The results showed that the Georgian farms can be grouped into small subsistence oriented family farms, mid size farms with piglet production and fattening for subsistence and market and big farms with market production. The gross margins per fattening pig differ between 90 for big farms and 41 for small subsistence oriented family farms. The same ratio can be found for the piglet production with 115 gross margin for big farms up to 51 gross margin for small subsistence oriented family farms.
To increase the economic situation the impacts of improved piglet production was examined. Therefore the impact of improved feed, selection, local races, more information and state measures of development of production and marketing are discussed.
Keywords: Economic assessment, Georgian Republic, pig breeding