Lila Karki, Siegfried Bauer:
Technology Adoption and Household Food Security, Analysing Factors Determining Technology Adoption and Sustainability of Impact -- A Case of Smallholder Peasants in Nepal


Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Institute of Project and Regional Plannig, Germany

Nepalese agriculture is characterized by traditional subsistence oriented farming. The paramount important of this sector is reflected by its 39% share to national GDP and absorption of 81% labour force. Livestock sector is the major component that sustains agricultural system by providing more than 91% draft power required to agricultural operation and more than 90% of the total manure for food grain production. Some socio-economic and geo-physical factors have hindered apace both food grain and livestock production. Generation and diffusion of innovations are continued by an unflinching endeavor over the years, but in dawdling motion. Consequently, scanty of area coverage have been made by innovation. A with and without project approach was applied as a research methodology to test the hypothesis that technology adoption is determined by socio-economic, human capital factors, and project intervention irrespective of technological attributes and resource endowments. A household survey was conducted to collect primary data applying multi-stage random sampling procedure for 165 respondents. In addition, secondary information was also used. The collected cross sectional data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, econometric model and qualitative analysis. The econometric analysis revealed that farm size, credit, experience, education, off-farm income, project intervention and extension service are the determining factors of adoption since the coefficients of those variables are found positively significant at 0.05 and 0.01 probability level. The degree of adoption of improved animals is higher with treatment group (62%) as compared to control (10%). The number of saplings plantation, area allocation for forage cultivation and biomass production are found significantly different between the two groups at 0.001 probability level. Notwithstanding project intervention laid positive impact, the food security at household level was found not significant. Therefore, the extrinsic factors governing application of innovations should be on the top priority while executing policies. Moreover, intervention should primarily focus on either of the followings to increase food security: increase the level of inputs use, or improve the technology without increasing the quantity of inputs, or increasing the productivity of inputs by reallocating and combining them optimally from beneficiaries' perspective.

Keywords: Project intervention, technology adoption, rural households, food security, impact

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Contact Address: Lila Karki, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Institute of Project and Regional PlannigSenckenbergstraße 3, D-35390 Gießen, Germany, e-mail:
Andreas Deininger, September 2004