BUDISATRIA I GEDE SUPARTA1, BALIARTI ENDANG2, HENK UDO1
1Wageningen University, Animal Production System, The Netherlands
2Faculty of Animal Science, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Animal Production, Indonesia
Cattle are the main component in the crop-livestock production systems, while small ruminants role in this integration depend on the type of crop grown by the farmers. This paper presents the integration of crop and small ruminants production in different agro-ecozone in Indonesia. In total, 172 small ruminant farmers from the three agro-ecozones, lowlands, middle zone and uplands, in Central Java-Indonesia, were involved in the study. The study was conducted in one year, using both interview and direct investigation. The data consisted of land possession, crop production, the macronutrient of small ruminants manure and soil (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, nitrate and C:N ratio). The results indicated that farmers in the lowlands have a fewer lands compared to the farmers in the middle zone and uplands area. The composition of land in the lowlands dominated by paddy field, while in the middle zone and uplands were fields and farmyards, as a result, rice is the main crop grown by the farmers in the lowlands, while in the middle zone and uplands, it was annual crop. The macronutrient quality of soil and manure in the lowlands was also poorer than those in the middle zone and uplands. The chemical composition of soil (N, P, K) in the lowlands was 0.13%; [627.2]mgkg and [2121.1]mgkg, in the middle zone and uplands was 0.55%; mgkg; 358.5 and 0.22%; [910.1]mgkg; [2698.9]mgkg, respectively, while the composition of small ruminants manure in the lowlands was 0.87%; [1712.3]mgkg and [19098.2]mgkg of N, P, K, respectively. In the middle zone and uplands, it was 1.71%; [2279.1]mgkg; [19462.1]mgkg and 1.19%; [1657.1]mgkg; [19866.1]mgkg, respectively. The study indicated that integration of crop and small ruminants production has been well applied in the higher zone. In the lowlands, grazing is the main integration between small ruminants and crop since the paddy field residues have not palatable as small ruminants feed.
Keywords: Central Java, crop, integration, small ruminants