BOHUMIL HAVRLAND, VLADIMIR KREPL, JAIME MUNOZ
Czech University of Agriculture, Institute of Tropics and Subtropics, Czech Republic
Better field technologies are the key for the technological progress in developing countries by improving revenues of farmers. Extension service lacks methods and tools how to improve its functions na help farmers make more profit from their farming activities. A new methodological approach was conceived in the concept of ATMP (Agricultural Technology Management Program) and has proved its appropriateness for extension service in both developed as well as less developed countries. The Program is meant to provide the art of work to the extension worker in providing sound and exact technological advice based upon both the availability of technological information (particularly on machinery sets and agronomic requirements) and rapid economic (costs) calculations. The programme demonstrates an attempt to put into practice the concept of ``appropriate technology'' with much sustainability based on (especially) precision machinery (animal draught and tool) inputs. It has only recently been completed and its comprehensive testing has commenced. Preceding field survey carried out in Zambia (August-September 2003) supplied basic data for technologies design and economic calculations. Four different technologies were conceived on various technological levels: 1. Hand-tool, 2. Mixed-hand-tool + animal draft, 3. Mixed-hand-tool + animal draft + mechanized and 4. Purely mechanized technology. All technologies were designed for Zambian conditions. The economic appropriateness of the respective technologies has been assessed according to the main parameters of the crop budget that were selected for export to the comparison table. The parameters included in the comparison table were displayed in table as well as chart forms. This enabled to a better comparison different parameters of the technologies. The main economic indicators that have been considered are the gross and net margins and own market prices per ton of the product.
Keywords: Agricultural technologic management programme, appropriate technology, crop budget, hand-tool technology, mixed technology, sustainable technology